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Version: v1.1.3

Debugging

Debugging a parallel program is not easy, so Taichi provides built-in utilities that could hopefully help you debug your Taichi program.

Runtime print in Taichi-scope

print(arg1, ..., sep='', end='\n')

Debug your program with print() in Taichi-scope. For example:

@ti.kernel
def inside_taichi_scope():
x = 256
print('hello', x)
#=> hello 256

print('hello', x * 2 + 200)
#=> hello 712

print('hello', x, sep='')
#=> hello256

print('hello', x, sep='', end='')
print('world', x, sep='')
#=> hello256world256

m = ti.Matrix([[2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 7]])
print('m =', m)
#=> m = [[2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 7]]

v = ti.Vector([3, 4])
print('v =', v)
#=> v = [3, 4]

ray = ti.Struct({
"ori": ti.Vector([0.0, 0.0, 0.0]),
"dir": ti.Vector([0.0, 0.0, 1.0]),
"len": 1.0
})
# print(ray)
# Print a struct directly in Taichi-scope has not been supported yet
# Instead, use:
print('ray.ori =', ray.ori, ', ray.dir =', ray.dir, ', ray.len =', ray.len)
#=> ray.ori = [0.0, 0.0, 0.0], ray.dir = [0.0, 0.0, 1.0], ray.len = 1.0

For now, Taichi-scope print supports string, scalar, vector, and matrix expressions as arguments. print in Taichi-scope may be a little different from print in Python-scope. Please see the details below.

note

print in Taichi-scope is currently supported on the CPU, CUDA, OpenGL, and Metal backends.

caution

For the CPU and CUDA backends, print will not work in Graphical Python Shells including IDLE and Jupyter notebook. This is because these backends print the outputs to the console instead of the GUI. Use the OpenGL or Metal backend if you wish to use print in IDLE / Jupyter.

caution

For the CUDA backend, the printed result will not show up until ti.sync() is called:

import taichi as ti
ti.init(arch=ti.cuda)

@ti.kernel
def kern():
print('inside kernel')

print('before kernel')
kern()
print('after kernel')
ti.sync()
print('after sync')

results in:

before kernel
after kernel
inside kernel
after sync

Note that host access or program end will also implicitly invoke ti.sync().

note

Note that print in Taichi-scope can only receive comma-separated parameters. Neither f-string nor formatted string should be used. For example:

import taichi as ti
ti.init(arch=ti.cpu)
a = ti.field(ti.f32, 4)


@ti.kernel
def foo():
a[0] = 1.0
print('a[0] = ', a[0]) # right
print(f'a[0] = {a[0]}') # wrong, f-string is not supported
print("a[0] = %f" % a[0]) # wrong, formatted string is not supported

foo()

Compile-time ti.static_print

Sometimes it is useful to print Python-scope objects and constants like data types or SNodes in Taichi-scope. So, similar to ti.static, Taichi provides ti.static_print to print compile-time constants, which is similar to Python-scope print:

x = ti.field(ti.f32, (2, 3))
y = 1

@ti.kernel
def inside_taichi_scope():
ti.static_print(y)
# => 1
ti.static_print(x.shape)
# => (2, 3)
ti.static_print(x.dtype)
# => DataType.float32
for i in range(4):
ti.static_print(i.dtype)
# => DataType.int32
# will only print once

Unlike print, ti.static_print will only print the expression once at compile-time, and therefore it has no runtime cost.

Serial execution

The automatic parallelization feature of Taichi may lead to non-deterministic behaviors. For debugging purposes, it may be useful to serialize program execution to get repeatable results and to diagnose data races. When running your Taichi program on CPUs, you can initialize Taichi to use a single thread with cpu_max_num_threads=1, so that the whole program becomes serial and deterministic. For example,

ti.init(arch=ti.cpu, cpu_max_num_threads=1)

If your program works well in serial but not in parallel, check parallelization-related issues such as data races.

Runtime assert in Taichi-scope

Programmers may use assert statements in Taichi-scope. When the assertion condition fails, a TaichiAssertionError will be raised to indicate the error.

note

assert is currently supported on the CPU, CUDA, and Metal backends.

For performance reasons, assert only works when debug mode is on. For example:

ti.init(arch=ti.cpu, debug=True)

x = ti.field(ti.f32, 128)

@ti.kernel
def do_sqrt_all():
for i in x:
assert x[i] >= 0
x[i] = ti.sqrt(x)

When you are done with debugging, simply set debug=False. Now assert will be ignored and there will be no runtime overhead.

Compile-time ti.static_assert

ti.static_assert(cond, msg=None)

Like ti.static_print, Taichi also provides a static version of assert: ti.static_assert. It can be useful to make assertions on data types, dimensionality, and shapes. It works whether debug=True is specified or not. When an assertion fails, it will raise an AssertionError, just like a Python-scope assert.

For example:

@ti.func
def copy(dst: ti.template(), src: ti.template()):
ti.static_assert(dst.shape == src.shape, "copy() needs src and dst fields to be same shape")
for I in ti.grouped(src):
dst[I] = src[I]
return x % 2 == 1

Pretty Taichi-scope traceback

Taichi reports traceback messages when encountered errors in Taichi-scope. For example:

import taichi as ti
ti.init()

@ti.func
def func3():
ti.static_assert(1 + 1 == 3)

@ti.func
def func2():
func3()

@ti.func
def func1():
func2()

@ti.kernel
def func0():
func1()

func0()

The above snippet would trigger a long and scaring AssertionError:

Traceback (most recent call last):
File "/Users/lanhaidong/taichi/taichi/python/taichi/lang/ast/ast_transformer_utils.py", line 23, in __call__
return method(ctx, node)
File "/Users/lanhaidong/taichi/taichi/python/taichi/lang/ast/ast_transformer.py", line 342, in build_Call
node.ptr = node.func.ptr(*args, **keywords)
File "/Users/lanhaidong/taichi/taichi/python/taichi/lang/impl.py", line 471, in static_assert
assert cond
AssertionError

During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:

Traceback (most recent call last):
File "/Users/lanhaidong/taichi/taichi/python/taichi/lang/ast/ast_transformer_utils.py", line 23, in __call__
return method(ctx, node)
File "/Users/lanhaidong/taichi/taichi/python/taichi/lang/ast/ast_transformer.py", line 360, in build_Call
node.ptr = node.func.ptr(*args, **keywords)
File "/Users/lanhaidong/taichi/taichi/python/taichi/lang/kernel_impl.py", line 59, in decorated
return fun.__call__(*args)
File "/Users/lanhaidong/taichi/taichi/python/taichi/lang/kernel_impl.py", line 178, in __call__
ret = transform_tree(tree, ctx)
File "/Users/lanhaidong/taichi/taichi/python/taichi/lang/ast/transform.py", line 8, in transform_tree
ASTTransformer()(ctx, tree)
File "/Users/lanhaidong/taichi/taichi/python/taichi/lang/ast/ast_transformer_utils.py", line 26, in __call__
raise e
File "/Users/lanhaidong/taichi/taichi/python/taichi/lang/ast/ast_transformer_utils.py", line 23, in __call__
return method(ctx, node)
File "/Users/lanhaidong/taichi/taichi/python/taichi/lang/ast/ast_transformer.py", line 488, in build_Module
build_stmt(ctx, stmt)
File "/Users/lanhaidong/taichi/taichi/python/taichi/lang/ast/ast_transformer_utils.py", line 26, in __call__
raise e
File "/Users/lanhaidong/taichi/taichi/python/taichi/lang/ast/ast_transformer_utils.py", line 23, in __call__
return method(ctx, node)
File "/Users/lanhaidong/taichi/taichi/python/taichi/lang/ast/ast_transformer.py", line 451, in build_FunctionDef
build_stmts(ctx, node.body)
File "/Users/lanhaidong/taichi/taichi/python/taichi/lang/ast/ast_transformer.py", line 1086, in build_stmts
build_stmt(ctx, stmt)
File "/Users/lanhaidong/taichi/taichi/python/taichi/lang/ast/ast_transformer_utils.py", line 26, in __call__
raise e
File "/Users/lanhaidong/taichi/taichi/python/taichi/lang/ast/ast_transformer_utils.py", line 23, in __call__
return method(ctx, node)
File "/Users/lanhaidong/taichi/taichi/python/taichi/lang/ast/ast_transformer.py", line 964, in build_Expr
build_stmt(ctx, node.value)
File "/Users/lanhaidong/taichi/taichi/python/taichi/lang/ast/ast_transformer_utils.py", line 32, in __call__
raise TaichiCompilationError(msg)
taichi.lang.exception.TaichiCompilationError: File "misc/demo_traceback.py", line 10:
ti.static_assert(1 + 1 == 3)
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
AssertionError:

...

The error message can be verbose and scary. However, many stack frames reveal Taichi compiler implementation details, which are too noisy for debugging. In current version, you could choose to suppress the level of traceback messages by setting sys.tracebacklimit, which makes the stack traceback from Taichi-scope more intuitive:

import taichi as ti
import sys
sys.tracebacklimit=0
...

which makes the result look like:

AssertionError

During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:

taichi.lang.exception.TaichiCompilationError: File "misc/demo_traceback.py", line 10:
ti.static_assert(1 + 1 == 3)
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
AssertionError:

...

Moreover, when filing an issue, please always unset the sys.tracebacklimit value and paste full traceback messages.

Debugging Tips

Debugging a Taichi program can be hard even with the above built-in tools. Here we showcase some common bugs that one may encounter in a Taichi program.

Static type system

Python code in Taichi-scope is translated into a statically typed language for high performance. This means code in Taichi-scope can have a different behavior compared with that in Python-scope, especially when it comes to types.

The type of a variable is determined at its initialization and never changes later.

Although Taichi's static type system provides better performance, it may lead to bugs if programmers use the wrong types. For example:

@ti.kernel
def buggy():
ret = 0 # 0 is an integer, so `ret` is typed as int32
for i in range(3):
ret += 0.1 * i # i32 += f32, the result is still stored in int32!
print(ret) # will show 0

buggy()

The code above shows a common bug due to misuse of Taichi's static type system. The Taichi compiler should show a warning like:

[W 06/27/20 21:43:51.853] [type_check.cpp:visit@66] [$19] Atomic add (float32 to int32) may lose precision.

This means that Taichi cannot store a float32 result precisely to int32. The solution is to initialize ret as a float-point value:

@ti.kernel
def not_buggy():
ret = 0.0 # 0 is a floating point number, so `ret` is typed as float32
for i in range(3):
ret += 0.1 * i # f32 += f32. OK!
print(ret) # will show 0.6

not_buggy()

Advanced Optimization

By default, Taichi runs a handful of advanced IR optimizations to make your Taichi kernels as performant as possible. Unfortunately, advanced optimization may occasionally lead to compilation errors, such as the following:

RuntimeError: [verify.cpp:basic_verify@40] stmt 8 cannot have operand 7.

You can turn off the advanced optimizations with ti.init(advanced_optimization=False) and see if it makes a difference. If the issue persists, please feel free to report this bug on GitHub.