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Version: v1.0.4

Contribution Guidelines

Thank you for your interest in contributing to Taichi. Taichi was born as an academic research project. Though we are working hard to improve its code quality, Taichi has a long way to go to become a mature, large-scale engineering project. This is also why we decided to open source Taichi from the very beginning: We rely on our community to help Taichi evolve and thrive. From document updates, bug fix, to feature implementation, wherever you spot an issue, you are very welcome to file a PR (pull request) with us!:-)

Centered around the common process of taking on an issue, testing, and making a corresponding PR, this document provides guidelines, tips, and major considerations for Taichi's contributors. We highly recommend that you spend some time familiarizing yourself with this contribution guide before contributing to Taichi.

General guidelines and tips

This section provides some general guidelines for the Taichi community and tips that we find practically useful.

Be pragmatic & no overkills

Always use straightforward (sometimes even brute-force) solutions: Complicated code usually suggests a lack of design or over-engineering.

  • "There are two ways of constructing a software design: One way is to make it so simple that there are obviously no deficiencies, and the other way is to make it so complicated that there are no obvious deficiencies. The first method is far more difficult." — C.A.R. Hoare
  • "Perfection (in design) is achieved not when there is nothing more to add, but rather when there is nothing more to take away." — Antoine de Saint-Exupéry

Juxtapose pros and cons

When it comes to making a design decision, weigh up its pros and cons. A design is good to go so long as its advantages outweigh its disadvantages.

Communicate effectively

Our ultimate goal is to build a sustainable, prosperous Taichi community, and effective communication is the cornerstone of that goal. Following are tips that may contribute to effective communication:

  • Concise:

    • The message behind your words outweighs the number of your words. Use as few words as possible to drive your point home.
    • Use tables, figures, and lists where possible.
  • Professional:

    • Read twice before you post: Would your point get across with your words?
    • Use a spell checker, such as Grammarly, to improve your writing in terms of grammar, style, and tone.
  • Constructive and courteous: Base your feedback and discussions on facts, NOT on personal feelings.

    • Acceptable😃: "This design could be confusing to new Taichi users. If it were designed this way, it could..."
    • Undesirable😞: "This design is terrible."

What you can contribute

We welcome all kinds of contributions, including but not limited to:

  • Fixing a bug
  • Proposing and implementing new features
  • Improving or refactoring an existing document
  • Suggesting more friendly error messages
  • Adding new test cases and examples (demos)
  • Posting blog articles and tutorials
  • Enhancing compiler performance
  • Minor updates to documentation, codes, or annotations.

Take over an issue

Except for minor updates, most PRs start from a developer taking over an issue. This section provides some corresponding tips and best practices.

Where to find issues for starters

Issue TagDescriptionTarget developer
good first issueIssues that are easy to start withDevelopers new to Taichi
welcome contributionIssues slightly more challengingDevelopers who wish to dive deeper into Taichi

Best practices

  • When you plan to take over an issue:
    • Best practice: Leave a message claiming that you are working on it.
    • Goal: Avoid unnecessary repeated work.
    • Example: "I know how to fix this and would like to help."
  • After you take over an issue:
    • Best practice:
      1. Briefly describe how you plan to handle it (if no solution has been provided).
      2. Hold off until a core developer responds to your action plan.
    • Goal: Keep your implementation neat and effective.
    • Example: See #2610.

References for documentation updates

As part of the effort to increase visibility of the community and to improve developer experience, we highly recommend including documentation updates in your PR if applicable. Here are some of the documentation-specific references and tips:

Add test cases for your local changes

If your PR is to implement a new feature, we recommend that you write your own test cases to cover corner cases for your codes before filing a PR.

Conduct style checks and integration tests locally

We highly recommend that you complete code style checks and integration tests on your local computer before filing a PR.

Enforce code style

Taichi enforces code style via pre-commit hooks, which includes the following checks:

  1. C++ codes are formatted by clang-format-10.
  2. Python codes are formatted by yapf v0.31.0 based on PEP 8 rules.
  3. Python codes are statically checked by pylint.

You will need to install pre-commit first:

pip install pre-commit

and run the code checkers:

pre-commit run -a

With this command, yapf will format your Python codes automatically. You can install it as a pre-commit hook so that it is run before you commit the changes to git:

pre-commit install
What if I didn't format my code style locally?

No problem, the CI bot will run the code checkers and format your codes automatically when you submit a PR.

For more style information for your C++ code, see our C++ style.

Run integration tests

To run all the C++ and Python tests: python tests/

  • Example 1: python tests/ -v -t3 -a cpu,metal -s

    • -v: Verbose output.
    • -t <threads>: Set a custom number of threads for parallel testing.
    • -a <arch(s)>: Test only the specified backends (separated by comma).
    • -s: Original output from the tests.
  • Example 2: python tests/ numpy_io

  • Example 3: python tests/ linalg -k "cross or diag"

    • -k <key>: Run only the tests that match the specified keys (supports expression in a key string).
    • This command runs test_cross() and test_diag() in tests/python/
  • To show all available options python tests/ -h

We have both Python and C++ test cases, but C++ test cases are disabled by default. To enable C++ test cases:

  1. Build Taichi from source using the python develop command.

File a pull request (PR)

Now you get to the point where you need to get your hands dirty with your PRs. This section provides the following:


  • When implementing a complex feature:

    • Consider breaking it down to multiple separate, self-contained PRs to provide the community with a clearer context and keep a more traceable development history.
  • When creating a PR:

    • Have your PR address only one issue:
      • In this way, you keep your changesets small so that potential issues can be readily identified.
      • If you include in your PR irrevelant implementations, ensure that they are minor.
      • Your reviewers have the right to request you to remove massive, irrevelant changes from your PR.
    • If your PR is to implement a new feature, ensure that you have designed test cases for it. See Add test cases for your local changes.
    • You are required to conduct code style checks and integration tests locally for your PR. See Conduct style checks and integration tests locally
  • When describing your PR:

    • Provide sufficient information in the description of your PR to provide the community with clearer context:
      • Link to a specific GitHub issue if applicable, for example fixes #<issue_number>.
      • Share important design decisions in your description.
  • If you create a PR still in progress:

    • Click Convert to draft on your PR page to convert the PR to draft, indicating that you are still working on it.
    • Click Ready for review when you are all set and up for a review.
    • See Draft for more information.

PR naming conventions

Your PR will make it into the commit history in the the master branch or even Taichi's release notes, therefore it is important to keep your PR title self-explanatory. This section describes our PR naming conventions:

[tag1] [tag2]...[tagN] Your PR title must be short but carry necessary info

^----^ ^----^...^----^ ^--------------------------------------------------^

| | | |

| | | +---> Capitalize the initial of your title.

| | +---> Adjacent tags are separated with precisely one space.

| +---> Frequently used tags: [cuda], [lang], [ci], [ir], [refactor].

+---> Prepend at least one tag to your PR title.
  • Tag naming conventions:

    • Prepend at least one tag, such as [lang], to your PR title.
    • If you have multiple tags, separate adjacent tags with one space.
    • See misc/prtags.json for a full list of available tags.
    • We differentiate PRs for end-users from PRs for developers by capitalizing tag initial.
      • If a PR deals with a feature visible to the end-users, initialize the most relevant tag and the PR will make it into the release notes. For example, [Metal], [Vulkan], [IR], [Lang], or [CUDA]. Ensure that your PR title has AT MOST one tag dealt this way.
      • If a PR deals with the underlying or intermediate implementation, then it is for the developers and you need to ensure that all its tags are in lowercase. For example, [metal], [vulkan], [ir], [lang], or [cuda].

    [Lang][refactor] (sans space)


    [Lang] [refactor]


    [GUI] [Mac] Support modifier keys (both tags have their initial capitalized)


    [gui] [Mac] Support modifier keys (only one tag has its initial capitalized)

  • Title naming conventions:

    • Keep your PR title short enough but ensure that it carries necessary information.
    • Do not include back quotes ("`") in your PR title.
    • Capitalize the initial letter of your title, which is the word immediately after your tag(s).

    [Doc] improve documentation (the initial of the title is not capitalized)


    [Doc] Improve documentation


Following are some frequently used tags:

  • [cuda]: Backend-specific changes.
  • [lang]: Frontend language features, including syntax sugars.
  • [ir]: Intermediate representation-specific changes.
  • [refactor]: Code refactoring changes.
  • [ci]: CI/CD workflow-specific changes.
  • [Doc]: Documentation updates.

When introducing a new tag, ensure that you add it to misc/prtags.json so that others can follow.

PR review & merging checklist

Follow this checklist during PR review or merging:

  1. Ensure that your PR title follows our naming conventions.

  2. Ensure that Taichi's master branch has a linear history. See Linear vs Non-Linear History for more information.

  3. Ensure that your PR passes all Continuous Integration (CI) tests before merging it.

    CI is triggered each time you push a commit to an open PR. It builds and tests all commits in your PR in multiple environments. Keep an eye on the CI test results:

    • A ✔️ on the left-hand side of a commit hash: CI has passed,
    • A ❌ on the left-hand side of a commit hash: CI has failed.

Here, we do not want to repeat some best practices summarized in the following Google blog articles. But please spare a couple of minutes reading them if your PR is being reviewed or if you are reviewing a PR. They have our recommendation!

Compilation warnings

Taichi implements warning-free code by turning on -Werror (which treats warnings as errors) by default. We highly recommend resolving a warning the moment when it is raised.

On the other hand, real-world issues could be way more complicated than what the compiler expected. So, we prepare the following HOWTOs to help resolve some common problems. You are also more than welcome to file an issue or consult a reviewer in place for further discussions.

How to deal with warnings from third-party header files

There is little we can do about third-party warnings other than simply turning them off.

To mute warnings from specific third-party header files, you can apply the SYSTEM option when including third-party directories into CMakeFiles. The following examples can be found in cmake/TaichiCore.cmake:

# Treat files under "external/Vulkan-Headers/include" as system headers, and warnings from them are muted.
include_directories(SYSTEM external/Vulkan-Headers/include)

# Treat files under "external/VulkanMemoryAllocator/include" as system headers for target "${CORE_LIBRARY_NAME}"
target_include_directories(${CORE_LIBRARY_NAME} SYSTEM PRIVATE external/VulkanMemoryAllocator/include)

How to deal with warnings when compiling third-party libraries or targets

Ideally, third-party submodules should be built completely independent of your Taichi project except for the topological dependencies. Unfortunately, CMake variables from Taichi and its submodules could be mixed sometimes because of the design of the CMake system. Follow the two steps below to mute warnings from a third-party target:

  1. Separate the submodule's CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS from that configured in Taichi.
  2. Remove the -Wall option from the submodule's CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS.

How to mute specific warning types across entire Taichi project

You can find details about how to mute certain warning types on Clang Compiler User Manual; it usually starts with -Wno-. Please explain what the warning is about and why we should ignore it in the comments.

The following examples can be found in cmake/TaichiCXXFlags.cmake:

# [Global] Clang warns if a C++ pointer's nullability was not explicitly marked (__nonnull, nullable, ...).
# Nullability seems to be a clang-specific feature; thus we disable this warning.
set(CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS "${CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS} -Wno-nullability-completeness ")

# [Global] By evaluating "constexpr", compiler throws a warning for functions known to be dead at compile time.
# However, some of these "constexpr" specifiers are debug flags and will be manually enabled upon debugging.
set(CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS "${CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS} -Wno-unneeded-internal-declaration ")

In rare situations where the warnings cannot be fixed nor muted via regular attempts, one of the last things you can try is to decorate your code with the #pragma clang diagnostic macro. Beware that #pragmas are not part of the C++ standard and strongly depend on the compiler's implementation. That is to say, this solution is neither stable nor elegant.

Wrap the lines of interest with the following two macros; then warnings are ignored for the code in between. You may also replace -Wall with a group of specific warning types for finer control:

#if defined(__clang__)
#pragma clang diagnostic push
#pragma clang diagnostic ignored "-Wall"

{Your Code Goes Here}

#if defined(__clang__)
#pragma clang diagnostic pop

Still have issues?

If you encounter any issue that is not covered here, feel free to ask us on GitHub discussions or open an issue on GitHub with all the details attached. We are always there to help!

Finally, thanks again for your interest in contributing to Taichi. We look forward to seeing your contributions!